Introduction and Implementation of XAML in WPF With an Example

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Hi Friends ! Today ,I will Show to "How to Implement XAML Concepts in WPF Applications".
What is XAML?
  • XAML Stands for Extensible Application Markup Language.
  • XAML is a declarative XML- based Language that defines objects and their Properties in XML.
  • XAML can be used to create visible UI elements in the declarative XAML markup.
  • XAML files are xml files that generally represent the .xaml extension.
  • XAML is a flexible Language that can be used designing and programming purpose at a time.
  • XAML Parser instantiates and writes up the objects using appropriate API and sets their properties.
  • If we use XAML with Avalon then Procedural code (code behind) is separate from user interface (UI).
  • We can use XAML Language in WPF,SilverLight and WF .NET Technologies.
  •   XAML is  Very powerful  binding Technologies.
Advantage of XAML:-
  • Graphical designer tools are used XAML language (ex. Blend).
  • XAML Code is flexible and short.
  • XAML code is used for designing and Business logic codes.
Syntax of XAML 
There are two main ways to write the XAML Codes in WPF Applications as given below:-
1.) Property Syntax:-
<Button Name="bt" Content="Submit" Height="30" Width="90" FontWeight="Bold" Background="SkyBlue" />

2.) Attribute element Syntax:-
<Button.Content> Submit </Button.Content>
            <Button.Height> 30</Button.Height>
            <Button.Width>90</Button.Width>
           Button.FontWeight>Bold</Button.FontWeight>
            <Button.Background>
                <LinearGradientBrush>
                    <GradientStop Color="SkyBlue" Offset="1"/>
                </LinearGradientBrush>
            </Button.Background>
        </Button>

Description:-
  • We can use Attribute Syntax and Property element Syntax in XAML codes. Some times we can't write Attribute syntax in XAML Codes , at that time we use Property element Syntax.
  • In above example i have set Background as a  LinearGradientBrush so here i have used Attribute element syntax.
Compilation process of XAML:-
WPF Application contains Following files:-
  • MainWindow.XAML
  • MainWindow.XAML.CS
  • App.XAML
  • App.XAML.CS
XAML FILES


When we compile the WPF Application compiler covert the XAML File to BAML (Binary Application Markup Language) and C# file to g.cs file .You can see this whole compiled files in below image as shown below:-

XAML

Descriptions:-
Here WPF Files convert as a following ways using compiler as given below:-
MainWindow.xaml            ------> MainWindow.baml
MainWindow.xaml.cs      ------->MainWindow.g.cs

Graphical representation of Compilation process of XAML File in WPF :-

Descriptions:-
When XAML to BAML compilation process(by xamic.exe compiler) is finished,visual studio use the appropriate language compiler to compile the codes(in case c# use csc.exe compiler.) and generate the Partial class codes.After that Compiled codes combine in a single unit code that is called assembly file.
BAML :-
  • BAML stands for Binary Application Markup Language
  • It is the Binary representation of XAML.
  • It is more efficient than other.
  • BAML is not like Microsoft intermediate Language(MSIL).It is a Compressed declarative format that is faster to load and parse than plain XAML.
  •  BAML is just an implementation detail without any direct public Exposure,so it could be replaced with different in the Future.
  • BAML is very smaller in size than XAML.
App.XAML :- App .xaml is the declarative starting point of the application.Our visual studio automatically create it when we start a new WPF Application (include code behind and xaml markup). App.xaml files is used to define the global resources and may be used accessed from all over an application. 
When open App.xaml file in your wpf project, you will see the following codes as given below:-
<Application x:Class="WpfApplication5.App"
             xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
             xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
             StartupUri="MainWindow.xaml">
    <Application.Resources>
         
    </Application.Resources>
</Application>

App.xaml.cs file codes:-
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Configuration;
using System.Data;
using System.Linq;
using System.Windows;

namespace WpfApplication5
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Interaction logic for App.xaml
    /// </summary>
    public partial class App : Application
    {

    }
}

Namespace in WPF:-
Every XAML include these two Namespace files in WPF Application as given below:-
<Window x:Class="WpfApplication5.MainWindow"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"    
</Window>

Descriptions:-
  1. http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation    It is used to map the all WPF controls in System.Window.Controls.
  2. http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml                                                                It defines the XAML keywords.This Namespace is used to map XML  namespace and a  CLR namespace by xml definition attribute at assembly level.
How to Build a Simple XAML Application:-
There are some steps to build a simple WPF application in Visual studio 2010 as given below:-
 Step 1:- First open your visual studio --> File -->New --> Project --> Select WPF Application --> Press OK as shown below:-

webform

Step 2:- Now open MainWindow.xaml From Solution Explorer--> Now create Label and Button control using XAML as shown below:-
<Window x:Class="WpfApplication5.MainWindow"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        Title="MainWindow" Height="391" Width="839">
    <Grid>
        <Label Content="Hello Friends! How are you.." FontWeight="Bold" FontFamily="Verdana" Height="35"  HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="159,36,0,0" Name="label1" Background="SkyBlue" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="199" />
        <Button Content="Submit" FontSize="15" FontWeight="Bold" Height="39" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="223,120,0,0" Name="button1" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="80" Click="button1_Click" />
    </Grid>
</Window>

Step 3:- You will see the following output as shown below:-


window_output

Step 4:- If you want to build same Label and Button control  and other, using code behind -->Open Solution Explorer --> After that open MainWindow.xaml.cs file --> Write the following codes as given below:-
using System;
using System.Text;
using System.Windows;
using System.Windows.Controls;
using System.Windows.Data;
using System.Windows.Documents;
using System.Windows.Input;
using System.Windows.Media;
using System.Windows.Media.Imaging;
using System.Windows.Navigation;
using System.Windows.Shapes;

namespace WpfApplication5
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Interaction logic for MainWindow.xaml
    /// </summary>
    public partial class MainWindow : Window
    {
        public MainWindow()
        { 
          //create label and set its contents and backgrownd color;
            Grid grid_obj = new Grid();
            Label l1 = new Label();
            l1.Name = "Label1";
            l1.Content = "Hello Friends! How are you..";
            l1.Background = new SolidColorBrush(Colors.SkyBlue);
            l1.Foreground = new SolidColorBrush(Colors.Red);
            l1.FontWeight = FontWeights.Bold;
           l1.Margin = new Thickness(60, 30, 40, 30);
          
            Grid.SetRow(l1,0);
            grid_obj.Children.Add(l1);

 // create label and set its contents and backgrownd color;
            Button b1 = new Button();
            b1.Name = "Button1";
            b1.Content = "Submit";
            b1.Width = 200;
            b1.Height = 80;
            Grid.SetColumn(b1, 0);
            Grid.SetRow(b1, 0);
            b1.Background = new SolidColorBrush(Colors.SkyBlue);
            grid_obj.Children.Add(b1);
            this.AddChild(grid_obj);         
        }
        private void button1_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            StackPanel st = new StackPanel();
            this.Content = st;
            Button bt = new Button();
            bt.Content = "OK";
            bt.Background = new SolidColorBrush(Colors.SkyBlue);
            bt.Width = 100;
            bt.Height = 50;
            st.Children.Add(bt);
            
        } 
    }
}

Description:-
  • Here i have created same button and Label controls using c# which i have already created in XAML Language.
  • I have created another button (OK) on Submit button 's clicks using stackpanel.
Step 5:- Now Build  the Application(Press F6) --> After that Run the Application (press F5)--> You will see the output as shown below:-


wpf design

Step 6:- Now Press Submit Button --> You will see the output as shown below:-


ok

Note:-
  • You can build a simple WPF application from above tutorial. I have putted all basics concepts of WPF Technology in this tutorial so that students can easily understand the concepts of WFP. I will published other concepts also in our coming post.
  • You can easily download whole application from below link and run it on your visual studio.
Please share this post with your friends....

Download Attached File 
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