General .NET Questions and Answers

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1.) What is .NET ?                                                                                                                 
.NET is a platform which is used to develop the  different types of Applications..NET Consist on:-
  • .NET Framework
  • Visual Studio .NET IDE
2.) What is .NET  Framework?                                                                                          
.NET Framework is a Kind of Environment(set of Components) which allow us to develop the different kinds of applications.
  • Windows -based Applications
  • Web based Applications
  •  Console Applications
  • Building Windows Device Driver
3.) What is CLR?                                                                                                                   
The Common Language Run time,Popularly Known as CLR. It is the heart and soul of the.net Framework .CLR is run time environment in which programs written in C# and other .net language are executed. It manage the .net application while running.It also supports cross-language interoperability.

4.) What is BCL?                                                                                                                   
BCL is known as Base Class Library.It is a collection of predefined classes and Namespaces.

5.) What is CTS?                                                                                                                    
CTS is known as Common Type System.It provides the common Datatype for all Language.
6.) What is CLS?                                                                                                                    
CLS is a set of rules which must be followed by all the language compiler that we want to use on .NET platform. The CLS is a subset of CTS and therefore the language supporting the CLS can use each other.

7.) What is Managed Code?                                                                                                 
 Managed code is the code that directly executed by the CLR. A Managed code is execute by the CLR as Following ways:-
  • Select the Language compiler
  • Compile the code to MSIL(CSC Compiler).
  • Compile the MSIL code to Native code(JIT Compiler)
  • Execute the code
8.) Which Utilities is used in .net to compile the Managed code Assembly to the processor specific native code?
Native Image Generator(Ngen.exe).

9.) Which types of classes is used in .NET Framework?                                              
.NET Class Libraries.

10.) Which Namespace is used in .net class Libraries?                                                
System.object

11.) What is Garbage Collector in .NET?                                                                         
Garbage collector is used in .NET for two Purpose:-
  • Managed the Resource allocation
  • Released the memory from unused resources.
System.GC.Collect() method is used in Garbage Collector in NET.

12.) What are the Security Features in .NET Application ?                                       
  • Role-based Security:-It allows the user to control the Access the Application Resources and Operations.
  • Code Access Security:- It allows the user to access the Resources and perform privileged operations.
13.) What are the Components of the.NET Frameworks  ?                                        
 There are some components of the .NET Frameworks.
  • Common Language Runtime (CLR)
  • Common Type System(CTS)
  • Meta Data and Assemblies
  • .NET Framework class Library
  • ASP.NET
  • ADO.NET
  • Windows Workflow Foundation(WWF)
  • Windows Communication Foundation(WCF)
  • Windows Presentation Foundation(WPF)
  • LINQ
14.) What are the procedure for compile the C# code ?                                              
C# Code ----csc compiler----->MSIL + Meta Data --------jit compiler------>Native code

15.) What is CSC ?                                                                                                                
CSC is a Runtime Compiler that is used to compile the C# code.

16.) What is MSIL ?
MSIL  is a Microsoft Intermediate Language. CSC compiler convert the C# code to a different language that is Known as MSIL It is also known as assembly code and meta data.

17.) How can say, .NET is platform Independent  ?                                                      
MSIL code is CPU Independent . MSIL  Code must be converted into CPU specific code(Machine language code) either by JIT compiler or Ngen.exe Tool,so that you can say .NET is platform Independent like java.

18.) What is JIT ?                                                                                                                  
JIT is a Just -in-Time compiler ,that is used to convert the MSIL code to the Native code(CPU understanding code).

19.) What is Meta Data in .NET ?                                                                                       
Meta Data is known as Data about Data.You can easily find Meta Data of an Assembly File(.exe code) through the concept of Reflection.

20.) What is an assembly?                                                                                                  
A Single deployable unit of program is called as assembly(After compilation of the code,we get ,is called assembly file).

21.) What are different Types of assemblies?                                                                 
  • Private assemblies
  • Public/Shared assemblies
Private assemblies:-A Private assemblies is used for a particular application.Private assembly has no version Constraints.

Public/Shared assemblies:- A  public assembly is stored in GAC (Global assembly cache).It has version Constraint.It also stores the Shared assemblies file.

22.) What  are the advantage of an assembly?                                                                
  • Managed code
  • Encapsulation
  • Better performance
23.) What  is Global assembly cache in .NET?                                                               
A Global assembly cache (GAC) is the central place for registration assemblies in .NET.
There are some ways to deploy an assembly in the Global assembly cache .
  • GAC Tool (Gacutil.exe)
  • An installer that is designed to work with GAC.
  • Drag and Drop assembly into the cache from the Windows Explorer
24.) What  is side by side Execution in .NET?                                                               
The process of execution of multiple versions of an assembly or application is known as side by side Execution in .NET.

25.) When did release .NET Framework?                                                                       
 .NET Framework 1.0  ---> 13 February 2002---> Visual studio 2002 IDE    
.NET Framework 1.1  --->  25 April 2003 ---> Visual studio 200 IDE  &Windows Server 2003
.NET Framework 2.0 -> 7 November 2005->Visual studio 2005  &Windows Server 2003 R2  
.NET Framework 3.0 -> 6 November 2006---> Express Blend &Windows Server 2008     
.NET Framework 3.5  --->19 November 2008--->    Windows Server 2008 R2
.NET Framework 4.0  ---> 12 April 2010---> Visual studio 2010 IDE    
.NET Framework 4.5  ---> 15 August 2012--->  Windows Server 2012 

26.) What are the benefits of the .NET Framework?                                                    
There are some benefits of the .NET Framework.
  • Cross -platform support
  • Language Interoperability
  • Consistent Programming Model
  • Automatic Management of Resources
  • Very easy in Development

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